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Across the Internet, mistaken and malicious routing announcements impose significant costs on users and network operators. To make routing announcements more reliable and secure, Internet coordination bodies have encouraged network operators to adopt the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (“RPKI”) framework. Despite this encouragement, RPKI’s adoption rates are low, especially in North America.

This report presents the results of a year-long investigation into the hypothesis—widespread within the network operator community—that legal issues pose barriers to RPKI adoption and are one cause of the disparities between North America and other regions of the world. On the basis of interviews and analysis of the legal framework governing RPKI, the report evaluates the issues raised by community members and proposes a number of strategies to reduce or circumvent the barriers that are material. The report also describes substantial action taken this year by the American Registry for Internet Numbers (“ARIN”) and other private organizations in light of public dialogue about RPKI.