Transparency should trump trust: Rejoinder to McConnell and Leibold (2009) and Ziegert and Hanges (2009)

Document Type


Publication Date



The rebuttals offered by the authors whose data we reanalyzed (see record 2009-06703-001)—A. R. McConnell & J. M. Leibold (see record 2001-11532-008); J. C. Ziegert & P. J. Hanges (see record 2005-05102-011)—address secondary issues that do not alter our primary message: The evidence for the predictive validity of the race Implicit Association Test is too fragile to support the strong claims that have been made about the pervasiveness of prejudice and the linkages between Implicit Association Test scores and discriminatory behavior. Greater caution in both the legal and scientific communities is warranted. Most importantly, scientific research on implicit bias needs greater transparency and willingness to open raw data to critical scrutiny, not greater trust and deference among researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

Publication Title

Journal of Applied Psychology